Robert’s Dictionary defines the word Freemasonry thus:
"An international Association, in part secret, of a naturalist and philanthropic nature, the members of which recognize one another through certain signs or emblems."
While not being complete, this definition underlines important characteristics of Freemasonry:
Before extending the analysis further, let us examine its sources of inspiration, its previous history and some of the main features of its history according to its own historians and others.
There is a simple tombstone in St. Peter’s Cemetery in West Brighton, Staten Island, New York. It does not stand apart in a specially designated area, nor is it adorned in any way to distinguish this gravesite from the countless others in that consecrated ground. The humble headstone is engraved with the family name Capodanno. Along with his beloved mother and father, this is the final resting place of the mortal remains of a faithful Servant of God who had the valiant, sacrificial heart of a priest, truly another Christ. His name is Father Vincent Robert Capodanno. The inspiring story of Father Capodanno speaks louder than any grand or splendid monument.
The Capodanno Family
Like millions of courageous immigrants before him, Vincent Capodanno, Sr., of Gaeta, Italy, left the security and comfort of his family and homeland in 1901 at the age of sixteen in hopeful anticipation of the American dream. Through perseverance, hard work and faith in God, Vincent established himself in the New World, working as a ship caulker at New York Harbor.
(Reprinted from The Remnant, July 1995) On July 17, 1794, sixteen holy women were executed by guillotine at the Place du Trône Renversé in Paris. The group comprised thirteen professed Carmelite nuns, one Carmelite novice, and two “tourières” (laywomen servants).
When they were solemnly beatified by Pope Pius X on May 27, 1906, they became the first martyrs under the Masonic “French Revolution” on whom the Holy See passed judgment. Though often called the “Carmelite” martyrs, two of them were not actually Carmelites; they were faithful house servants who considered themselves part of the community and refused to leave them when the Reign of Terror against the Church, the Clergy and all Religious Orders was in full swing.
1) Mother Teresa of St. Augustin [Madeleine Claudine Lidoine] -- prioress -- the last to be executed -- age 42.
2) Mother Henriette of Jesus [Marie-Françoise Gabrielle de Croissy] -- ex-prioress -- age 49.
3) Sister Charlotte of the Resurrection [Anne-Marie-Madeleine Thouret] -- sacristan -- age 79.
4) Sister Of Jesus Crucified [Marie Anne Piedcourt] -- choir-nun -- the eldest -- age 80.